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Not for Publication
Not for circulation outside a Committee member's organization (employer)
except as expressly approved by the chairman of the committee. _________________________________________________

Specification for Underwater Welding

As-published View

1. General Provisions
1.1 Scope

   This specification covers underwater welding in both dry and wet environments. Operations required at the surface related to and in support of underwater welding are within the scope of this document, but welding above the surface is not. All provisions of this document apply equally to new construction and to modification and repair of existing structures underwater.

1.2 References

   It shall be the responsibility of the Customer to specify the appropriate editions of the standards referenced in this specification. The following documents are incorporated by reference:

ANSI/AWS A2.4, Standard Symbols for Welding, Brazing, and Nondestructive Testing
ANSI/AWS A3.0, Standard Welding Terms and Definitions
ANSI/AWS B4.0, Mechanical Testing of Welding
ANSI/AWS D1.1, Structural Welding Code - Steel
API RP2X, Recommended Practice for Ultrasonic Examination of Offshore Structural Fabrication and Guidelines for Qualification of Ultrasonic Technicians
ASTM A 370, Standard Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products
ASTM E 92, Test Method for Vickers Hardness of Metallic Materials
ASTM E 164,Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Contact Examination of Weldments
ASTM E 165, Test Method for Liquid Penetrant Examination
ASTM E 309, Standard Practice for Eddy-Current Examination of Steel Tubular Products using Magnetic Saturation ASTM E 340, Test Method for Macroetching Metals and Alloys


ASTM E 426, Practice for Electromagnetic (Eddy-Current) Examination of Seamless and Welded Tubular Products Austenitic Stainless Steel and Similar Alloys
ASTM E 709, Guide for Magnetic Particle Examination
ASTM E 1219, Standard Test Method for Fluorescent Liquid Penetrant Examination Using the Solvent-Removable Process
ASTM E 1220, Standard Test Method for Visible Liquid Penetrant Examination Using the Solvent-Removable Process
ASTM E 1416, Standard Test Method for Radioscopic Examination of Weldments
ASTM E 1444, Standard Practice for Magnetic Particle Examination ISO 148, Steel - Charpy Impact Test (V-Notch)
ISO 3045, Nondestructive Testing - Penetrant Testing and Magnetic Particle Testing - Viewing Conditions
ISO 3452, Non-destructive Testing - Penetrant Inspection - General Principles
ISO 4136, Fusion Welded Butt Joints in Steel — Transverse Tensile Test
ISO 4969, Macroscopic Examination by Etching With Strong Mineral Acids
ISO 6892, Metallic Materials Tensile Testing
ISO 6947, Welds — Working Positions — Definitions of Angles of Slope and Rotation
ISO 7426, Methods for Testing of Welding Qualification Coupons [REF]
ISO 7427, Methods for Examination of Welding Qualification Coupons
ISO 9304, Seamless and Welded (Except Submerged Arc Welded) Steel Tubes for Pressure Purposes—Eddy Current Testing for the Detection of Imperfections
ISO/DIS 9015.2, Welding — Welded Joints in Metallic Materials — Hardness Testing
ISO/DIS 9016.2, Welding — Welded Joints in Metallic Materials — Specimen Location and Notch Orientation for Impact Tests
QW-470 - Etching Processes and Reagents (ASME B&PV Code Section IX)
SNT-TC-1A, American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Recommended Practice

1.3 Purpose

   This specification addresses fabrication and quality standards for underwater welding. This document may be used in conjunction with other applicable codes or speci- fications for design, construction, or repair.


1.4 Application

1.4.1 All references to the need for approval shall be interpreted to mean approval by a duly designated person acting for and in behalf of the Customer on all matters within the scope of this specification. The Customer may designate an engineer, inspector or other(s) to act in the Customer’s behalf to assure that the requirements of this specification are fulfilled. The Customer should specify the authority of the authorized representatives. Hereinafter, the term Customer shall be used to mean the party contracting for the work or the authorized representative.

1.4.2 In this specification, the term "shall" indicates a mandatory requirement and has the significance of excluding the idea of discretion. The word "should" indicates a nonmandatory recommended practice. The word "may" implies no obligation and expresses liberty or permission.

1.4.3 For Class O welds (see 2.1.7 and 5.6), conflicts between referenced documents and this document shall be brought to the attention of the Customer for disposition. In general, the referenced documents may take precedence in matters not affected by the underwater environment. However, this document shall take precedence in matters related to the underwater welding environment and working conditions.


1.5 Base Metals

1.5.1 The base metals presently included under this specification are carbon, low alloy, and austenitic stainless steels commonly used in the fabrication of steel structures. The weldability of the steel and the procedures for welding it shall be established by qualification. Each procedure is qualified based on the carbon content, carbon equivalent, and strength of the base metal to be welded in production. Production welding on base metal of carbon equivalent or strength above that qualified shall require requalification of the procedure. (Carbon equivalent shall not applicable to austenitic stainless steel base metals.)

1.5.2 This specification may be used for welding of other base metals. In such cases, applicability of specific requirements shall be determined by the Customer.

1.6 Welding Process

1.6.1 Gas metal arc welding (GMAW), gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), flux cored arc welding (FCAW), plasma arc welding (PAW), and shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) are the principal joining processes addressed by this specification. These processes may be used, provided the welding procedure is qualified in accordance with all applicable requirements of this document.

1.6.2 Other welding processes may be used at the discretion of the Customer, provided the applicable qualification requirements of this specification are met.


1.7 Definitions

   The welding terms used in this specification shall be interpreted in accordance with the definitions given in the latest edition of ANSI/AWS A3.0, Standard Welding Terms and Definitions, supplemented by Annex B of this document (AWS D3.6M).


1.8 Welding and NDE Symbols

Welding and examination symbols shall be those shown in ANSI/AWS A2.4, Standard Symbols for Welding, Brazing, and Nondestructive Examination. Special conditions shall be fully explained by added notes or details.


1.9 Safety and Health

This document is not a safety standard and does not establish specific performance requirements for safety issues or procedures associated with diving or underwater welding. However, Annex D provides some guidance relative to safety in underwater welding and cutting. Additional pertinent welding safety information can be found in the documents referenced in Annex E . In addition, manufacturer's safety literature on equipment and materials, as well as other pertinent documents, should be considered. Each contractor must determine independently whether the safety precautions contained in the referenced publications are adequate.


1.10 Standard Units of Measure

   The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. United States Customary Units, shown parenthetically, may be approximate and are for information.